Welcome to Gyrus

Dear future authors,

you can find the list of our available topics in this link.

Please note that the topics, depending on the part of the journal to which they belong, are classified into several groups in the document (sheets: Issue Topic, Topics by Sections, Editor's Choice).

In order to apply for a certain topic, please enter your personal data and your e-mail address in the appropriate columns next to the preferred topic. Afterwards contact us by e-mail on This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

In case you have your own idea and/or have come up with a different topic feel free to contact us as well!

Guidelines are available here.

Issue Topic

Rhythmic variations of mood

Article by Augustin Mutak

Abstract
In this article, an overview of studies on circadian (daily), circaseptan (weekly) and circannual (yearly) variations of positive affect, negative affect and total mood is given. Studies on circadian mood rhythms, which were mostly focused on fluctuations of positive and negative affect, indicate that positive affect displays circadian variations, while negative affect does not. Such findings are linked to predictive and reactive homeostasis, respectively. The function of positive affect could be to energize the organism to be more active during the middle of the day, while the function of negative affect could be to respond to immediate threats which can appear during any time of the day. Research on circaseptan mood rhythms often also explored total mood in addition to positive and negative affect. Current findings show that mood is higher during the weekend than during the working week. It is possible that such variations are culturally determined, however, more research is needed to reach stable conclusions. Studies on circannual mood rhythms were mostly focused on seasonal affective disorder (SAD). SAD rates are highest in the winter, although a smaller number of patients report depressive symptoms during the summer months. Predictive homeostasis is also thought to be the underlying evolved mechanism responsible for SAD since SAD makes the organism less active, thus reducing the quantity of food the organism needs to consume in the winter months when the sources of food are scarce. An overview of differences between yearly fluctuations of SAD rates and suicide rates is given.
KEYWORDS:
affect, circadian clocks, circaseptan, periodicity, seasonal mood disorder

To see the full article click here.

Basic Neuroscience

What color are your letters? – an insight into synesthesia

Article by Andrea Paulik

Abstract
Tuesday is a dark shade of blue. The sound of a train tastes like strawberries. For people with synesthesia, sensations in two modalities are experienced when only one is stimulated. Synesthesia can theoretically bind any two senses and there are 60 currently known synesthetic combinations, but research has largely focused on two of the most common variants in which auditory tones and colorless numbers produce vivid colors. It is commonly said that synesthesia is an involuntary, automatic, consistent and idiosyncratic condition, meaning that it does not happen consciously and that sensations evoked by stimuli do not change over time. It also means that no two people will have the exact same experience. For scientists, synesthesia presents an intriguing problem and more research is being conducted with the sole purpose of discovering where it originates from and how it works in the human brain. There are two main competing neurological hypotheses for synesthesia: crossmodal transfer (CMT) and neonatal synesthesia (NS). CMT is based on the idea that different sensory modalities and their functions are located in separated areas or modules of the brain, which are „cross-activated“ in synesthetes. NS is based on an assumption that ordinary neural pruning in human development fails to occur, leaving the individual with an originary, synesthetic brain.
KEYWORDS:
cognitive neuroscience, crossmodal transfer, multisensory integration, perception, synesthesia

To see the full article click here.

Psychiatry

Psychological Stress and Wound Healing

Article by Iva Čarapina

Summary: Stress and different mental states have a significant effect on the progress of wound healing. It has been shown that stress can change the production of cytokines and thus interfere with the healing process. Interesting studies with animals, stressed students, married couples, Alzheimer caregivers, depressed, anxious individuals, people with anger issues and other uncover a significant influence that stress has on the progress of wound healing. Wounds created with punch biopsy, tape striping and blister wounds are often used to measure this influence. The importance of intervention methods used for decreasing stress and its impact are discussed.

To see the full article click here.

Neurosurgery

Epilepsy Surgery – Candidates, Preparations, Results

Article by Marko Zorić

Summary: Epilepsy is a chronic disease that affects the nervous system and is characterized with seizures. It can be treated in the great majority of patients with antiepileptic drugs (AED). Unfortunately, there is a smaller group of patients, according to some researches about one third of patients, who have pharmacoresistant epilepsy and they cannot be treated even with a combination of two AED. These patients should be considered as potential candidates for neurosurgical treatment. A detailed neurological evaluation with functional and structural procedures like MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), EEG (electroencefalography), ictalSPECT (single photon emission computed tomography), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetoencephalography (MEG) is essential before conducting surgery. Some studies show promising results in neurosurgical treatment in the majority of cases but in the future bigger randomized studies from multicentric epilepsy centers should bring guidelines and standards for the choice of candidates for neurosurgery which will contribute to better outcomes.

To see the full article click here.