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Ayurveda and Parkinson Disease

Article by Karlo Toljan

Summary: Ayurveda represents a traditional medicinal practice that is native to India. It has a rich history of over four thousand years of clinical experience and it still remains a strong medical option in India where 80% of patients use it. By spreading the Indian culture through globalization, other parts of the world got exposed to this medical practice. It now exists as a complementary medical practice. Parkinson disease affects more than 4 million people worldwide and every possible treatment becomes a valuable tool in easing the daily struggles of the patients. This article presents the concept of Ayurveda and the arising research that indicate a possibly new successful approach for the benefit of patients suffering from Parkinson disease.

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Neuroscience

Molecular biology of myelin

Article by Emina Horvat Velić

Summary: Myelin is one of the most essential component of the nervous system. It forms myelin sheets that envelop the axons of both central and peripheral nervous system and its main function is to speed up the signal that travels down the axon. Myelin sheet consists mainly of lipids and proteins; some are myelin specific, whereas other are found in all animal cells. Portions and rations of myelin components are also different when compared to other cells, as well as when comparing CNS and PNS myelin. The process of formation of myelin sheets is called myelination, and the opposite process is called demyelination. Remyelination is another important process, that occurs around axons that were previously demyelinated, and a deeper insight in that process could help combat diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

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Neurology

The role of IGF-1 in neurodegenerative diseases

Article by Jan Homolak, Ivona Janeš and Maša Filipović

Summary: IGF-1 is the main effector of growth hormone, exerting a great number of anabolic responses in the human body. Our review is centered around the observation that IGF-1 depletion in the brain leads to the development od neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline seen in elderly people. A large number of studies have unveiled various mechanisms by which levels of IGF-1 can be decreased, which in turn causes brain deterioration. In this review, we discussed in detail potential role of IGF-1 in neurodegeneration through five critical etiopathogentic aspects: neurotrophic properties, oxidative stress, cardiovascular system pathology, infammation and thesaurismoses. IGF-1 participates in survival of the neurons, it enhances synaptic transmission, brain plasticity, reduces oxidative stress and proinflammatory effects of prostangladins and cytokines, as well as amyloid β (A) formation and amyloid precursor protein (APP) overexpression. Considering its wide spectrum of physiological functions and potential pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative disorders, further insights into its mechanism of action might lead to development of new preventiive methods, diagnostic methods and pharmacological therapies.

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Psychiatry

Psychological Stress and Wound Healing

Article by Iva Čarapina

Summary: Stress and different mental states have a significant effect on the progress of wound healing. It has been shown that stress can change the production of cytokines and thus interfere with the healing process. Interesting studies with animals, stressed students, married couples, Alzheimer caregivers, depressed, anxious individuals, people with anger issues and other uncover a significant influence that stress has on the progress of wound healing. Wounds created with punch biopsy, tape striping and blister wounds are often used to measure this influence. The importance of intervention methods used for decreasing stress and its impact are discussed.

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Neurosurgery

Epilepsy Surgery – Candidates, Preparations, Results

Article by Marko Zorić

Summary: Epilepsy is a chronic disease that affects the nervous system and is characterized with seizures. It can be treated in the great majority of patients with antiepileptic drugs (AED). Unfortunately, there is a smaller group of patients, according to some researches about one third of patients, who have pharmacoresistant epilepsy and they cannot be treated even with a combination of two AED. These patients should be considered as potential candidates for neurosurgical treatment. A detailed neurological evaluation with functional and structural procedures like MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), EEG (electroencefalography), ictalSPECT (single photon emission computed tomography), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetoencephalography (MEG) is essential before conducting surgery. Some studies show promising results in neurosurgical treatment in the majority of cases but in the future bigger randomized studies from multicentric epilepsy centers should bring guidelines and standards for the choice of candidates for neurosurgery which will contribute to better outcomes.

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